Photovoltaic systems are comprised of photovoltaic cells, devices that convert light energy directly into electricity. Because the source of light is usually the sun, they are often called solar cells. The word photovoltaic comes from “photo,” meaning light, and “voltaic,” which refers to producing electricity. Therefore, the photovoltaic process is “producing electricity directly from sunlight.” Photovoltaics offer consumers the ability to generate electricity in a clean, quiet and reliable way. To produce the solar-grade silicon is costly, reducing production costs for photovoltaic cells is a top priority.  In order to achieve this, research is being carried out in two interdependent fields: reducing the cost of manufacturing processes and increasing the conversion efficiency of cells.

A major research and development of photovoltaic are:

a. To provide new technologies and to make photovoltaic electricity more competitive

b.To develop new concepts in order to overcome the limitation for the conversion efficiency of cells

c.To reduce assembly costs for modules per unit of power (€/Wp) and Increase output per unit area         and per unit weight (Wp/m2, Wp/kg) and Ensuring maximum life span

d. To develop new silicon purification methods and new crystallization processes for producing ingots or      thin films, with the aim of reducing costs and the quantities of material used.

Improvements of Photovoltaic can be made in:

a. The electrical architecture of systems,

b. Power electronics,

c. The detection and localization of faults,

 d. And the addition of system services.


a.   Increase security for the continuous supply of current

b.   Make the architecture dynamic in order to reduce shade effects,

c.   Improve monitoring to ensure better maintenance and better prediction

d.   Increase possibilities for building integration.