Types of Water

    Description

    Sparkling water

    Carbonated water obtained either through natural underground springs or made by dissolving CO2 gas in water. Carbonation lasts longer in naturally carbonated waters

    Mineral water

    Must contain no less than 250 parts per million (ppm) total dissolved solids (TDS) with the solids being the minerals in the water. Is distinguished from other types of water by the regular mineral and trace elements present. It is distinguished from other types of water by the regular mineral and trace elements present types of water.

     Artesian water

    From a well in a confined aquifer. Water level in well must stand at some height above the top of the aquifer. May also be known as “artesian well water”.

     Well water

    Comes from a hole that is bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground, tapping the water of an aquifer.

     Fuoridated water

    Contains fluoride that is added within the limitations set by Federal Regulations. Some spring and artesian sources have naturally occurring fluoride in trace amounts.

     Purified water

    Produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes that meet the legal definition of "purified water". May also be known as "demineralized water".

    Reverse Osmosis 

    Reverse Osmosis. This is a system of water purification which allows pre-filtered water to be forced through a semi-permeable membrane to separate impurities from our drinking water. However, this membrane allows only certain molecules to pass through providing the water pressure is exactly constant. The matter of water pressure is a problem still to be solved. Furthermore, the membrane also allows some iron and nitrate molecules to pass through. Another problem to be solved. 

    De-ionized Water 

    De-ionized Water. A process of exchanging "hard" ions for "soft." The total ions are still present. The end result is the same. But the water has the appearance of being distilled. Since water leaving the sodium-cation exchanger has little hardness, it contains sodium salts. 

    Distilled Water 

    Distilled Water. This is water that has first been turned into steam so that all of its impurities are left behind. Then through condensation, it is turned back into pure water. It is the only pure water. The only water free from all contamination. Distilled water may well be considered the only pure water on earth. 

    Hard water 

    Hard Water. This is saturated with calcium, iron, magnesium, and many other inorganic minerals. All water in lakes, rivers, on the ground, in deep wells, is classified as hard water.

    Soft water 

    This water is soft in comparison with water which is harder. It may contain many trace minerals and chemicals, viruses and bacteria. It is not to be confused with "softened water." Soft water may be classified as water which is harder than distilled water.

    Boiled water

    Boiling helps remove some of the germs, but concentrates the inorganic minerals. Other germs are carried into a fertile element for rapid and lusty propagation of germs and viruses already in the body

     Raw water

     This has not been boiled. Raw water may be hard (as calcium hardened water) or soft as rain water. It contains millions of germs and viruses in every densely inhabited drop. Some of these viruses and bacteria may adversely affect the thyroid gland, the liver and other vital body organs.

     Rain water

    This has been condensed from the clouds. The first drop is distilled water. But when it falls as rain, it picks up germs, dust, smoke, minerals, strontium 90, lead and many other atmospheric chemicals. By the time rain water reaches the earth it is so saturated with dust and pollutants it may be yellowish in color. Water is supposed to act as an atmosphere purifier. If we had no air pollution, we would have far less pollution in our drinking water.

    Filtered water

    This water has passed through a fine strainer, called a filter. Some calcium and other solid substances are kept in the filter; there is no filter made which can prevent germs from passing through its fine meshes. Each pore of the finest filter is large enough for a million viruses to seep through in a few moments. A home filter usually only picks up suspended solids and is effective for the time, maybe only for hours, until it is filled up. Then it is ineffective even for removing suspended solids, and at the same time becomes a breeding ground for bacteria.

     Spring water

    Water without gas bubbles, usually tap water or natural spring water.

    Fresh water

    Fresh water may come from either a surface or ground source, and typically contains less than 1% sodium chloride. It may be either "hard" or "soft," i.e., either rich in calcium and magnesium salts and thus possibly forming insoluble curds with ordinary soap. Actually, there are gradations of hardness, which can be estimated from the Langelier or Ryznar indexes or accurately determined by titration with standardized chelating agent solutions such as versenates.

    Brakish water

    Brackish water contains between 1 and 2.5% sodium chloride, either from natural sources around otherwise fresh water or by dilution of seawater. Brackish water differs from open seawater in certain other respects. The biological activity, for example, can be significantly modified by higher concentrations of nutrients. Fouling is also likely to be more severe as a consequence of the greater availability of nutrients.

    Within harbors, bays, and other estuaries, marked differences can exist in the amount and type of fouling agents present in the water. The main environmental factors responsible, singly or in combination, for these differences are the salinity, the degree of pollution, and the prevalence of silt. Moreover, the influence of these factors can be very specific to the type of organism involved. Apart from differences that can develop between different parts of the same estuary, there can also be differences between fouling in enclosed waters and on the open coast. In this respect the extent of offshore coastal fouling is strongly determined by the accessibility to a natural source of infection. Local currents, average temperature, seasonal effects, depth, and penetration of light are operative factors. The presence of pollutants can also be quite important and highly variable in coastal areas.

     Sea water

    Seawater typically contains about 3.5% sodium chloride, although the salinity may be weakened in some areas by dilution with fresh water or concentrated by solar evaporation in others. Seawater is normally more corrosive than fresh water because of the higher conductivity and the penetrating power of the chloride ion through surface films on a metal. The rate of corrosion is controlled by the chloride content, oxygen availability, and the temperature. The 3.5% salt content of seawater produces the most corrosive chloride salt solution.

    Potable water

    Potable water is fresh water that is sanitized with oxidizing biocides such as chlorine or ozone to kill bacteria and make it safe for drinking purposes. By definition, certain mineral constituents are also restricted. For example, the chlorinity will be not more than 250 ppm chloride ion in the United States or 400 ppm on an international basis.

    Waste water

    By definition, waste water is any water that is discarded after use. Sanitary waste from private or industrial applications is contaminated with fecal matter, soaps, detergents, etc., but is quite readily handled from a corrosion standpoint. Industrial wastes from chemical or petrochemical sources can contain strange and specific contaminants which greatly complicate materials selection, especially in the uses of plastics and elastomers.

     
    Thus the consumption water by human can be divide into external use and internal use. Acidic water can be used for external/topical purpose while alkaline water can be used internally.